Combining several commits into one
If you've set up remote tracking, this is as simple as:
$ git rebase -i
Select to "squash" (
s) commit(s) (up) into the previous commit:
pick 908147acbe25f One commit s 34568147acbee Another commit, combine it with the previous one s 23568147gdfae Yet another commit, combine it with the previous ones
Once you quit the interactive rebase screen (which is vim in my case), you'll be prompted for how to concatinate (or just rewrite) the combined commit message for the now three combined (squashed) commits.
Removing files from a commit
First, find the SHA of the commit to which you want to rewrite the
history. In this example,
acbe25f is the first commit I'm
not interested in rewriting:
12e36ee This commit combines a lot of different changes acbe25f Everything is safe and sound $ git rebase -i acbe25f
Select to edit the commit you're interested in:
Then, remove the files from the given commit:
$ git reset HEAD~1 file1 file2
Re-commit the commit using the existing commit message, excluding the two files:
$ git commit --amend
Then, create a seperate commit for
$ git commit file1 file2 -m "Split file1 & 2 out into their own commit."
Finish the rebasing:
$ git rebase --continue
Finally, force push the changes to rewrite the changes on the (remote) server too:
$ git push --force
--force is only needed if you're rewriting already pushed
git push --force is potentially dangerous
and heed must be taken.
Removing some lines from a file in a commit
The first steps are just like above:
$ git rebase -i acbe25f edit 12e36ee $ git reset HEAD~1 pom.xml $ git commit --amend
At this point, now do an interactive
$ git add -i staged unstaged path 1: +8/-8 +8/-8 pom.xml *** Commands *** 1: status 2: update 3: revert 4: add untracked 5: patch 6: diff 7: quit 8: help
Git will then ask you:
Stage this hunk [y,n,q,a,d,/,j,J,g,s,e,?]?
For the commits you want to include in the next commt, select
the others you want to include in a different commit, select
Once you've answered yes and no to all the hunks, the hunks that
you've said "yes" to, are already staged for commit, so it's important
that you now just do a regular
-a or file name:
$ git commit -m "Committed a couple of hunks in pom.xml"
If you now do a
git status or
git diff, you'll see that there're
still changes to be committed, i.e. the hunks you said
n to in the
$ git diff
I find that normally, at this point I can just commit the remaining hunks in one commit (but you could of course repeat the interactive add to split the file commt into even finer grained commits):
$ git commit -m "Committed the remaining hunks in pom.xml"
Finally, force push your changes to the remote(s) server:
$ git push --force
Again, this is will rewrite the server history, so heed must be taken.